VL53L0X is I2C infrared laser-like distance sensor which can measure distance with accuracy of 1 mm and maximum distance of 200 cm in long range mode, the basic mode provides 120 cm range which is good for many applications. One disadvantage is that you cannot change I2C address permanently. You have to shut down other sensors on the line and then set I2C address of the sensor. Address resets when the sensor losts power.
Nokia 5110 SPI display or OLED I2C. 5110 is low power, readable on direct sun, has optional backlight but the pixels are rectangular not squares, so circle looks like ellipse. The OLED one is no so power efficient but easy to connect and has variable colors (blue and white) and size (0.9 and 1.3 inch). I like the 1.3″ inch version.
Bosch BME280. It measures temperature, humidity, pressure (and above sea level from pressure). It uses I2C interface and supports low power modes. For the precise contactless temperature measurements I choose Melexis MLX90614. This I2C sensor has several versions (voltage, field of view, accuracy). I like the DCI version which is 3 volt with 3 degrees FOV and almost medical precision.
If I want to get just Yaw/Pitch/Roll in degrees then I use GY-25. The board itself has MCU and sensor. The MCU communicates via I2C with sensor and over Serial to you. But if I want more data I use MPU-9250. It is I2C sensor with accelerometer, gyro, compass, so 9 axis in total. It also provides temperature as bonus.
I will add other soon